Around 1409, Fiore de’i Liberi composed treatise called “The Flower of Battle”, aka ( Fior di Battaglia, Florius de Arte Luctandi, Flos Duellatorum ). It systemically outlines the strategy and techniques in combats.
In 1560, Qi Jiguang (戚繼光) wrote a manual dedicated to wars, ranging topics from empty hand pugilists, archery and blades.
Xinyiquan(心意拳)was passed down to Ma Xueli (1714-1790) , but it’s early origin is still not clear. Recent evidence suggests it may actually origin from Yuefei, as early as Song dynasty. Please refer to Jarek’s China from Inside.
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Guard of Forehead